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Cellulose Biodegradable Packaging Information Sheet

Due to the damage that waste plastic is doing to the environment, last year we decided to discontinue all of our fossil fuel based polypropylene bags and replace them with greener biodegradable and compostable alternatives. So as the old stocks run out we will only be offering sustainable alternatives instead - more in keeping with the ecological and sustainable ethos of our recycled paper products.

Although many of our customers have been using our Biofilm bags since we launched them about 5 years ago, for those of you who are new to the material, the following information should help to explain the differences between polypropylene bags and their new greener replacements.

BIODEGRADATION:

Our cellulose bags and rolls of cellulose film are derived from renewable wood pulp and have similar environmental credentials to our greetings card biofilm bags. Cellulose is a substance from a plants cell wall, this can be extracted from renewable plant material to produce the cellulose film. Once used, cellulose film (also known as Cellophane) will biodegrade producing ecotoxicity free biomass (compost), CO2 and H2O. Then these 2 compounds can be combined with sunlight and converted into energy by plants in a process called photosynthesis, resulting in more tree growth which can then be used to produce more bags. In contrast to crude oil based plastics which are non-renewable.

All our Biofilm bags are made in the UK from film that has been accredited to ‘OK biobased’ and DIN EN 13432. It's also marine biodegradation approved to ASTM D6691-09 and Anaerobic digestion to ISO 15985. After use the film is approved to the OK Compost Home standard and for home composting can start to break down within a few weeks (depending on the ambient temperature). The film spec states that, when being composted, it must biodegrade to a minimum of 90% within 6 months although in reality this can be achieved in less than 45 days with industrial composting. Home composting will be at a lower temperature and will take longer.

 

SHELF LIFE:

The cellulose film manufacturers recommend (for food use) a shelf life of about 6 months, stored at 17 to 23°C (room temperature), kept away from humidity and direct sunlight. (We have sample bags which we have stored in these conditions which have actually lasted longer than this so they are quite stable if stored correctly.) However because this is a relatively new product we won’t have a definitive time scale until some of the original stock stored from last year has started to degrade.

How the bags are stored is also very important for extending their shelf life – biodegradation is initiated in a soil, compost or waste water environment where micro-organisms are present. In normal UK retail conditions cellulose bags are quite stable The main thing to maximise shelf life, is to avoid exposure to humidity and excessive heat, moisture and light. So, realistically in normal shop use you could get 6+ months if not a year or more before any degradation could start to show. Biofilm bags are also very stable should they be splashed with water - they don't start to degrade immediately so if wiped off promptly they should come to no harm. (For a florist we have tested the film holding a ‘ball’ of water to see how long it would take fail and we were surprised to find out that it took about 4 weeks before it failed. Not very scientific but we just wanted to be sure that it doesn’t turn to ‘compost’ overnight!) Exposure to bright direct sunlight such as in a shop window can result in degradation / discolouration over time, however this is only likely to be a problem in extreme conditions.

 

WHAT IS CELLULOSE SUITABLE FOR USE WITH:

Although by no means comprehensive, some popular applications for cellulose bags include:
Dried fruits
Fudge / Biscuits
Rice / Dried beans / pulses / pasta
Chocolates / Truffles / Toffee / Sweets
Tea (leaves) / Coffee beans / granules
Herbs and Spices
Potpourri
Bath salts
Bars of Soap
Wrapping prints or flowers (Reels)

 

CELLULOSE FILM LIMITATIONS:

Although cellulose film is quite a versatile material there are some jobs for which it is not suitable. It is not water proof so is not suitable for containing wet food products (Drinks / yoghurt etc.).
Cellulose film is often used for wrapping prints etc. but as we cannot guarantee that cellulose is 100% 'acid free' we do not recommend it for use with valuable paintings or for archival purposes etc. Also it only comes in rolls wide enough to make smaller size bags so currently for larger bags we offer it by the roll instead
Due to the way cellulose bags are manufactured it is not possible to supply them with self seal strips like the PLA bags but they can be used with a heat sealer or sealed with an adhesive label instead.
They are not suitable for cold storage. The film manufacturer hasn’t tested the film for food use below 0'C so does not guarantee it for use in a freezer.

 

OXO-DEGRADATION:

There has recently been some confusion between bio-film (Cellulose) and oxo-degradable plastics. Oxo- degradables are conventional plastics with additives to assist their disintegration into micro-plastic particles. You can therefore be assured that we DO NOT supply oxo-degradable plastics. All of our Biofilm (PLA) and Cellulose bags are biodegradable and compostable – they are NOT oxo-degradable!
According to the Bio-Based and Biodegradable Industries Association (BBIA) recent newsletter Oxo degradable plastics are NOT bioplastics. "Oxo degradables are conventional plastics with additives to assist their disintegration into micro-plastic particles. Under USA usage, but also in other countries around the world, it is illegal practice to call these plastics biodegradable. Indeed, the European Commission in their 16th January 2018 Plastics Strategy declared they will take measures to limit the use of Oxo plastics in the EU. See http://ec.europa.eu/environment/circular-economy/pdf/oxoplastics.pdf ".
If disposed of irresponsibly this material can break down into small particles which are the sort of plastic particles shown getting into the food chain on recent news articles and Blue Planet II. Therefore we will not be stocking any of this material and hopefully the current greenwash from the conventional plastic bag trade about oxo-degradable plastics will come to be seen for what it really is. To see a copy of the BBIA report see http://bbia.org.uk/faq and please feel free to pass it on.

 

COMPOSTABLE BAG DISPOSAL:

1) Compost Heap:
This is what they are designed for so is the best option.
2) Council Garden waste bin:
Although this would work you would need to check with your local council to ensure that that this waste is going for industrial composting. (Also you could end up 'at odds' with the council for putting what they could view to be the wrong waste in the bin.)
3) Food Waste Bin:
This would also be suitable but once again it might be best to check what the council is doing with this waste. (The bags are suitable for anaerobic digestion or industrial composting, if they will allow you to put them in).
4) General Waste Bin:
Although possibly not viewed as the perfect option, in landfill they will break down to CO2 and water in much the same way as they would in a compost heap.
5) Recycled Paper and Card Bin:
They should not go in with paper for recycling.
6) Recycled Plastic Bag Collections:
They should not go in this bin either. Biodegradable and compostable film is made from renewable plant materials, not petrochemicals. It is designed to break down to CO2 and H2O so leaves nothing suitable for recycling unlike traditional plastic bottles etc.

Hopefully this will enable you to choose the best option for environmentally responsible disposal of the biodegradable bags.

 

THE BIOFILM (Cellulose) CYCLE:

Our Natureflex bags are made from true Cellulose (not petrochemicals). Cellulose is the main structural component of plants and is obtained from wood pulp produced as an annually renewable crop (managed timber plantations).
These trees grow by photo-synthesis, absorbing CO2 from the air, minerals and water from the soil and the energy from the sun;
Once used these bags can be composted back into CO2, water and biomass;
Compost, CO2 and water are then used by plants, and so the cycle continues.

 

SPECIAL MAKINGS:

It is possible to have bags made to your own requirements subject to a minimum order of 5000 pieces. For more information you can contact us at contactus@eco-craft.co.uk

 

IN CONCLUSION:

We believe that in a world where some single use plastics will inevitably end up in landfill or worse still, littering the countryside, truly biodegradable and compostable bags offer a sensible alternative packaging solution, which genuinely cares for the environment and can contribute to solving the problem posed by the disposal of single use plastics. So although biodegradable bags can work out a bit more expensive than polypropylene bags they come with a far lower cost to the environment.

For more independent information about the environmental impact of plastics the following websites should be of help:
Greenpeace https://www.greenpeace.org.uk
Friends of the earth https://friendsoftheearth.uk
Wrap http://www.wrap.org.uk
BBIA http://bbia.org.uk and http://bbia.org.uk/faq/#myth_buster